Information Technology (IT) Security

Information Technology (IT) Security

Information is one of the most valuable resources today. It is through it that we make decisions, seek knowledge and relate to the world around us. Since the beginning of humanity, the search for information has always been a constant, and with the evolution of technology, this resource has become even more crucial.

job market and in everyday life.

The importance of Information can be seen in different areas, whether in the business, educational, scientific, political or personal field. Knowing how to collect, process, store and share relevant information is a skill that is increasingly valued in the job market and in everyday life.

In this article, I will address the meaning, definitions and concepts of Information in different contexts, as well as the importance, classification, formats and types of information. Read the article until the end and discover the importance of Information and how it can transform the world around you.

What does information mean?

Information can be described as a set of data or knowledge that has some type of value, meaning or usefulness for whoever receives it. It can be composed of different elements, such as facts, figures, ideas, opinions, stories and experiences, and can be transmitted through different means, such as speech, writing, images and symbols.

Information is organized and structured data that has a meaning or meaning within a specific context. They can be obtained from various sources, such as documents, databases, interviews, observations, among others. They are essential for decision-making in various sectors, whether business, government or personal.

Information Technology (IT) Security

Information can be defined as the result of the process of transforming data into a message with meaning for those who receive it. In other words, Information is what results from the processing and analysis of data, making it useful and relevant for decision making , understanding phenomena, communication, among other purposes.

What is the origin of the word/term Information?

The word information has its origins in Latin and derives from the verb informe or informatio, which means to give form, to put into shape, but also to represent an idea or notion. It is impossible to state with precision the exact period in which the term information was used for the first time, as it has been present since the most remote periods.

According to Capurro’s studies, it was Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) who first coined the Latin term informatio, implying ontological, epistemological, pedagogical and linguistic meanings.

intelligent being. (CAPURRO, 1985)

According to Aquinas, Man consists of an intimate union between matter, which is a power, and the soul (anima), the active principle that informs matter. The result of this union, or Information (in the ontological sense of the word) is a sensitive and intelligent being. (CAPURRO, 1985)

From this perspective, it can be seen that Information is effective through mediation between the human mind and objects, as they are perceived by our sense, that is, material and sensitive things are understood as they are apprehended by the sense, represented by the imagination and made intelligible by the intellect.

What is the Difference between Information and Data?

The difference between Information and data is that data are sets of facts, numbers, words, images or other elements that do not have meaning or inherent value, while Information is the result of processing these data, generating meaning and value.

In other words, data is the raw material of Information. They are collected, stored and processed to generate useful and relevant information that can be used for decision making and problem solving.

However, when data is processed and analyzed,

For example, imagine that a company collects data about its sales, including the number of sales, the total value of sales, the best-selling products, among others. This data, by itself, does not provide useful information for the company’s decision-making process . However, when data is processed and analyzed, it can generate valuable information, such as identifying sales trends, product performance in different regions or times of the year, among others.

In summary, the difference between Information and data is that data are raw elements that need to be processed to generate useful and relevant information. Information is the result of this data processing and analysis process, providing meaning and value to the data collected.

What is the Difference between Information and Knowledge?

The difference between information and knowledge is that information is a set of organized and processed data that provides meaning and context, while knowledge is the result of understanding and interpreting information, involving the ability to apply it in a specific context and make informed decisions .

Information is generally described as a set of organized and processed data that has meaning and value. For example, a company’s sales data can be organized and processed to generate useful information about product performance in different regions or times of the year.

knowledge gained

On the other hand, knowledge involves the ability to interpret and understand information, as well as the ability to apply it in a specific context. For example, a sales manager can use the knowledge gained from sales information to develop more effective marketing strategies and make informed decisions about how to manage the sales team.

Information Technology (IT) Security

In other words, information is a set of data that provides meaning and context, while knowledge is the result of understanding and interpreting that data. Knowledge requires more than just the ability to understand information, it also involves the ability to apply it in a specific context and make informed decisions based on that knowledge.


In summary, the difference between information and knowledge is that information is a set of processed and organized data, while knowledge involves the understanding, interpretation and application of information in a specific context.

What is the Information for?

Information serves a variety of purposes and is essential in many areas of life, from personal decision-making to business management. In general, it is used to:

  1. Generate knowledge and learning : information can be used to acquire knowledge on a certain subject and to learn new skills.
  2. Guide decision-making : information is crucial for making informed decisions, whether personal, business or governmental. With accurate and reliable information, it is possible to make more informed and accurate decisions.
  3. Foster innovation and creation : it can be used to create and develop new ideas and innovations, whether in products, processes or services.
  4. Enable communication and sharing : Information is the basis of communication and knowledge sharing between people and organizations.
  5. Facilitate the identification of problems and solutions : it can be used to identify problems and find effective solutions to resolve them.
  6. Support planning and management : information is essential for planning and managing projects and businesses, allowing for better organization and optimization of resources.

In short, information is a crucial tool for the evolution and progress of society, allowing informed decision-making, the development of new ideas and innovations, communication and sharing of knowledge, and much more.

What is the Purpose and Objectives of the Information?

The purpose of Information is to provide knowledge and insights that can be used to make decisions and solve problems in different areas of life. It aims to be useful and relevant, allowing people to make informed choices and achieve their goals more efficiently and effectively .

Information plays a crucial role in any organization or human activity. It is a valuable resource that can be used to make decisions, solve problems, develop new ideas, manage projects, promote innovation and improve the organization’s performance.

What are the Information Objectives?

The purposes of the Information may vary depending on the context in which it is used. In a business context, for example, it can be used to identify market opportunities, analyze competition, manage operations and resources, make strategic decisions, among other activities. In an academic context, information can be used to conduct research, publish articles, develop new theories or discover new applications for existing knowledge.

Some common purposes of Information include:

  1. Facilitate decision-making : can provide insights and data that help people make informed and effective decisions;
  2. Improve efficiency : can be used to identify opportunities for improvement and optimization of processes, making activities more efficient;
  3. Identify problems: can be used to identify problems and challenges, allowing them to be resolved more quickly and effectively;
  4. Support innovation : can be used to identify new opportunities and insights that can lead to new solutions and innovations;
  5. Improve performance : can be used to monitor and evaluate performance, identifying areas that need improvement and developing strategies to improve them.

How is Information Formed?

Information is formed from data processing. Data are sets of facts, numbers, words, images or other elements that do not have an inherent meaning or value. When this data is organized and processed in a way that provides meaning and value, it becomes Information.

The Information formation process involves several stages:

  • First, data is collected from diverse sources, such as sensors, data collection systems, records or other means. The data is then organized and stored in a way that allows for later retrieval. This process may involve indexing, classifying, and organizing data.
  • After organization, the data is processed to provide useful and relevant information. This processing may involve statistical analysis, data mining, modeling or other techniques. The objective is to extract insights and meaning from data, generating information that can be used for decision making and problem solving.
  • Finally, information is communicated and shared with other people or systems, allowing it to be used to achieve desired objectives. This process may involve creating reports, visualizations, dashboards or other forms of presenting information.

Information Characteristics

Information is a valuable resource for organizations and human activities. Some of the key characteristics of the information include:

  • Relevance : Information must be relevant to the context in which it will be used, in order to help solve problems or make important decisions.
  • Accuracy : The information needs to be accurate and reliable, in order to avoid errors or mistakes that could lead to wrong decisions.
  • Complete : The information must be complete, in order to provide all the data necessary for effective decision making or problem solving.
  • Availability : Information must be available when needed to avoid delays or interruptions in business processes.
  • Accessibility : Information must be accessible to those who need it to ensure that everyone can make informed decisions.
  • Reliability : The information must be reliable, in order to avoid errors or mistakes that could lead to wrong decisions.
  • Security : Information must be safe and secure to prevent unauthorized access or misuse.
  • Update : Information should be updated regularly to ensure it is always relevant and accurate.
  • Understandability : Information must be understandable to those who use it, to avoid confusion or misunderstandings.
  • Value : The information must have value to the organization, in order to justify the investment in its collection, storage and use.

These characteristics are important to ensure that information is a valuable and effective resource for organizations and human activities.

What are the Information Formats?

Information can be presented in different formats, depending on the type and purpose of the information. Some of the most common formats include:

  • Text : Information written in text format, such as reports, articles, emails, among others.
  • Images : Information presented through images, such as photographs, graphs, drawings, among others.
  • Audio : Information presented through sound, such as podcasts, audio files, recorded interviews, among others.
  • Video : Information presented through moving images, such as videos, films, presentations, among others.
  • Data : Information presented in data format, such as spreadsheets, tables, databases, among others.
  • Infographics : Information presented through graphic elements and images, such as infographics, diagrams, maps, among others.
  • Virtual reality : Information presented through digital simulation, such as games, training programs, virtual visits, among others.

Where can the Information be contained?

Information in a company can be contained in different locations, depending on the type of information and the system used by the company. Some of the main sources of information in a company include:

  • Databases : Databases are one of the main sources of information in a company, where data is stored and organized to allow access and analysis.
  • Physical files : Physical files such as folders, boxes and paper files are used to store important documents such as contracts, certificates, receipts and other records.
  • Business management systems : Business management systems are used to manage various business processes, such as sales, purchasing, inventory, accounting, human resources, among others, and are an important source of information in a company.
  • Production process – refers to all data and knowledge related to the steps and activities involved in manufacturing a product or providing a service. This information includes everything from process planning and development to production, quality control and maintenance.
  • Emails and messages : Email and messaging communications are another source of important information in a company, containing records of communications with customers, suppliers and other employees.
  • Company employees – Employees are a valuable source of information, as they have knowledge and experience about the business, customers, internal processes, among other important aspects for the company. In addition, employees may also have personal and confidential information, such as banking information, home address, number of documents, among others.
  • Social networks and internet : Social networks and the internet are important sources of information about the company and its competitors, in addition to allowing communication with customers and suppliers.

In summary, information in a company can be contained in different locations, and the proper management of this information is essential to ensure that the company makes informed decisions and achieves its business objectives.

Information Life Cycle

The information life cycle is a model that describes the different phases that information goes through during its use and storage in an organization. Although the information lifecycle can vary depending on the organization and type of information, it generally includes the following steps:

  1. Creation : Information is created or generated, and can be produced internally by the organization or acquired from external sources.
  2. Storage : Information is stored in a system or repository, which can be physical (such as files and folders) or digital (such as databases and content management systems).
  3. Management : Information is managed to guarantee its integrity, confidentiality and availability, through information security and risk management practices .
  4. Use : Information is used by authorized users to fulfill the organization’s objectives, such as decision-making, task execution, and internal and external communication .
  5. Sharing : Information is shared among authorized users in order to maximize its value to the organization.
  6. Archiving : Information is archived in a document management system or file repository, with the aim of preserving it and ensuring its future availability.
  7. Disposal : Information is discarded when it is no longer needed or when its retention period expires, in accordance with document management and information security policies.

The information lifecycle is important to ensure that information is managed appropriately in accordance with its security requirements and value to the organization.

What are the Types of Information?

  1. Personal information – is information that refers to an identified or identifiable natural person. This information may include name, address, telephone number, email address, date of birth, identification number, financial and payment information, health information, purchase history, and more. In short, any information that can be used to identify a natural person is considered personal information.
  2. Business information – is information that relates to a company’s activities and operations, including financial data, customer and supplier information, production data, human resources information, among others. This information is vital to the success and continuity of the company’s operations and is therefore considered valuable assets.
  3. Government information – is that managed by public bodies and entities, and which concerns the activities of the State and the public interest. This information can be of different natures, such as statistical data, laws, standards, regulations, administrative processes, among others.
  4. Financial information – is information about the financial situation of a company or organization. They may include financial statements such as balance sheets, income statements and cash flows, as well as information about financial transactions, investments, budgets and other financial activities related to the business.
  5. Customer information – information that companies collect and store about their customers, with the aim of better understanding their needs and behaviors. This information may include demographics, contact information, purchase history, product preferences, website browsing behavior, customer feedback, and more.

How can information be classified?

Information can be classified in different ways, depending on the criteria used. Below are some of the main forms of classification:

  • By nature : It can be classified as qualitative or quantitative. Qualitative information is descriptive, subjective and opinion-based, while quantitative information is numerical, objective and fact-based.
  • By source : It can be classified as primary or secondary. Primary information is information collected directly through research or observation, while secondary information is information that already exists somewhere, such as books, articles, reports, databases, among others.
  • By purpose : it can be classified as strategic, tactical or operational, depending on the level at which it is used in the organization.
  • By format : it can be classified as textual, visual, sound or multimedia, depending on the format in which it is presented.
  • By degree of sensitivity : it can be classified as public, confidential, restricted or confidential, depending on the degree of sensitivity and the need for protection.
  • By area of ​​application : it can be classified as financial, human resources, marketing, production, among others, depending on the area in which it is used in the organization.
  • By time : it can be classified as historical or real-time, depending on when it is collected and used.

Classification of Information by Degree of Sensitivity

Classifying information by degree of sensitivity is important so that the company can identify which information needs to be protected more rigorously. The classification may vary according to the organization’s information security policy , but generally follows the following scale:

  1. Public Information : It is information that does not require any access restrictions and can be disclosed without problems.
  2. Internal Information : This is information that must be restricted to the organization’s internal use, being accessible only to authorized employees.
  3. Confidential Information : It is information that requires special protection and can only be accessed by people who need it to carry out their activities. It may contain financial, human resources, among other information, which cannot be disclosed without authorization.
  4. Restricted Information : This is information that requires even more rigorous protection, being accessible only to a restricted group of people who need it to carry out specific activities. Generally, it includes information related to strategic projects, intellectual property, commercial secrets, among others.
  5. Sensitive Information : It is information that requires the most rigorous protection possible and can only be accessed by people with special authorization and proven need for access. Generally, it includes information related to national security, defense, criminal investigations, industrial secrets, among others.

It is important that the company establishes clear criteria for classifying information and promotes employee awareness of the importance of protecting this information, as well as the possible consequences in the event of leakage or misuse.

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